Poland Historical Symbols of Poland Distinguished Polish Personalities Notable Polish Americans
Events in Polish History The Siberic Gehenna Atrocities The Warsaw Ghetto 1944 Warsaw Uprising
Battle of Britain Religions Issues Art Customs Reference Section

      Basic Information
            Administrative and Topographic Maps of Poland
            Historical Maps of Poland 1025-1945
            Bielecki's Historical Maps of Poland 1772-2000
            Interwar Maps of Poland 1918- 1939
            World War II Maps 1939 -1945
            Demographic Maps of Poland
            Ethnicity and Linguistic Maps
            Origins and Definition: Polska, Wielkopolska and Malopolska
      The 24 Largest Cities
      Past and Present Regions of Poland
      Poznan: The Legendary Cradle of Poland
            Poznan International Fair
            Poznan'S Cathedral
            Poznan's Institutions of Higher Education
            Ratusz (Town Hall)
            The Fara Church
            The Raczynski Library
            The National Museum
                  Piotr Michalowski (1800-1855)
            Hotel Bazar
            The Okraglak
            The Opera - Teatr Wielki
            Imperial Palace Cultural Center
            Monument to the Victims of June '56
     Poland: Economic Comparisons

      Short History of Poland
      Last Two and a Half Centuries
      Library of Congress History of Poland: The Historical Setting
            Early History Until 1385
            The Jagiellonian Era, 1385-1572
            The Noble Republic, 1572-1795
            Partitioned Poland
            Independence Won and Lost, 1914-45
            The Polish People's Republic
            History of Poland: as a single document
      The Roots of Polish National Identity
      The History of Poland and its Literature since 1918
      1970-1997: A Polish Chronology

Symbols of Poland
      Names: the Nation's, its People
      Constitution Day: May 3, 1791
      The White Eagle
      The Flag
      Poland's National Anthem
      Virtuti Militari Medal

Distinguished Polish Personalities
      Józef Bem: General; Polish and Hungarian Leader
      Nicholas Copernicus: He who Moved the Earth
            Nicolaus Copernicus: His Place in the History of Astronomy
            When the Earth Moved: Copernicus and his Heliocentric System
      Walery Goetel: Geologist, Ecologist, Conservationist
      Wladyslaw Hasior: Notable 20th Century Artist
            Abandoned Banners: Wladyslaw Hasior (1928 - 1999)
            Impudent Artist
            Death of an Artist
            Sculptures: The Firebirds
            Sculptures: The Iron Organs
            Poetic Meanings of Utilitarian Objects
            Household Chapels Cycle
      John Paul II: Pontiff - Karol Wojtyla
      Jan Karski: Wartime Courier and Hero
            A Note by Michael Szporer
      Ryszard Kapuscinski: Third World Journalist Extraordinary
            From Reporting to Literature
            Idi Amin Dada and African Dictatorships
      Janusz Korczak: Author, Educator and Hero
      Tadeusz Kosciuszko: A Military Genius
            Kosciuszko's Victory at Raclawice
            The Military Genius of Tadeusz Kosciuszko
            Tadeusz Kosciuszko: A Polish Son of Liberty
            Kosciuszko and West Point
            Gallery of Monuments
            Gallery of Monuments - Slideshow
            Gallery of Portraits
            Gallery of Portraits - Slideshow
            Gallery of Historical Paintings
      Ryszard Kuklinski: A Patriot of Courage and Conviction
            Book Review: A Secret Life
      Rafal Lemkin and Genocide
      Jan Matejko: Painter and Patriot
            Jan Matejko, Fostering Polish Nationalism
            Understanding Matejko'sThe Battle of Grunwald
      Adam Mickiewicz: a Cultural Icon
            Adam Mickiewicz, Poet, Patriot and Prophet
            Andrzej Wajda and the filming of Pan Tadeusz
            The Storyline and Context of Andrzej Wajda's film Pan Tadeusz
      Czeslaw Milosz: Poet and Nobel Laurate
            Avantgarde & Classicism
            Rescuing Poetry
            Campo di Fiori
            Triumphal Poems
            "Ars Poetica"
            About Emigration
            Polish Character
            Milosz - The Moralist
            Milosz - The Translator
            The Socrealism
      Ignacy Jan Paderewski: Patriot and Piano Virtuoso
            Paderewski: Sensational Pianist
            Patriot, Composer, Piano Virtuoso, Philanthropist, Statesman
      Kazimierz Pulaski: Father of American Cavalry
            The Deeds of Kazimierz Pulaski
            Gallery of Monuments
            Gallery of Paintings
            Commemorative Stamp
            Commemorative Postal Card
      Wladyslaw (Wladyslaw) Reymont: Master of Descriptive Prose
            The Promised Land: Lódz was waking
            Keen Observer and Master of Descriptive Prose
            Strike! Adapting to the Industrial Revolution
            Autobiographical Notes of the Nobel Laureate
            Reymont in America
            The Nobel Prize: A Bitter Irony
            "The Promised Land:" Three comments
            Wajda and the making and revising of The Promised Land
            Wajda's use of Contrasts: Aesthetics and Style
            The Knightly Ethos: Its Disintegration
      Tadeusz Rozewicz: A Giant of Polish Postwar Literature
            The Witnesses - Text and Subtext
      Bruno Schulz: Creator of Dream-like Fiction
            Bruno Schulz Timeline
            Bruno Schulz and Psychoanalsis: The Images of Women in August
      Irena Sendler: WWII Rescuer and Hero
      Bona Sforza: Poland's Italian Queen
            Poland's Italian Queen
      Henryk Sienkiewicz: the Most Translated Author
            Henryk Sienkiewicz and Quo Vadis
            Letters from Africa (excerpts)
            Forum Romanum (excerpts from Quo Vadis)
            The Intricacies of Translation
      Isaac Bashevis Singer: Yiddish Author and Nobelist
           How the Singer Brothers Came to Be in America
      Karol Szymanowski: a Leading Composer for the Stage
            A Leading Composer of the Modern Music Theater
      Wislawa Szymborska, the Mozart of Poetry
            Poem: Some Like Poetry
            Poem: The End and the Beginning
            Delightful Inventiveness, Prodigious Imagination
            Six October 1996 Warsaw Voice articles
            In Buffalo: The Search for the Word: a guided tour of the exhibition
            In Krakow: Wislawa Szymborska's Seeking the Word
            Szymborska's Manuscripts
      Stanislaw Wyspianski: Painter and Formost Dramatist
      Witkacy: S. I. Witkiewicz: Avant-garde Dramatist and Artist
            Witkacy's Search for Self: An Introduction
            Witkacy: Stanislaw Ignacy Witkiewicz 1885-1939
            The Theater of Life or The Search for Self
      Karol Wojtyla - John Paul II: Pontiff
            Monuments in Poland
            Do not be afraid
            Look to Home
            Was the Pope Polish? Yes, Thank God

Notable Polish Americans
      Eugene Dyczkowski: Artist and Cultural Leader
           On the Centenary of his Birth
           The Officers Club Murals
           Dyczkowski: Paintings
      Ralph Modjeski: Civil Engineer
            Bridge Builder Extraordinary
      Matt Urban: Most Decorated WWII Soldier
            The Lt. Col. Matt Urban Story
            Congressional Medal of Honor Citation
      Authors: Novelists and Others
            Eva Hoffman -- Author and editor
            Leslie Pietrzyk -- Chronicler of Polish-American Women's Lives
            Witold Rybczynski -- Architect and Accomplished Author
            Suzanne Strempek Shea -- A Touch That Could Not Be More Tender

Events in Polish History

Beginnings of the Polish State (922-1025)
            Mieszko I and Boleslaw Chrobry
            Poland in the Early Chronicles

            Four Centuries of the European Union's precursor

Battle of Grunwald (Tannenberg) (1410)
            Understanding Matejko's The Battle of Grunwald
            Grunwald: A Monument to Hearten Polish Spirits
            Tannenberg: a Monument of German Pride

      The Reign of the
Vasa Dynasty (1587-1668)
            Introduction and the events of the Swedish Deluge: 1655-1660.
            Henryk Sienkiewicz's epic novel: Potop (The Deluge)
            Potop (The Deluge) - A film by Jerzy Hoffman

      The Second World War: 1939 - 1945
            The Siberic Gehenna
            The Millions of Poles Deported to the USSR in 1939-4
            The Travails of the Poplewski Family
            You Have Half an Hour ...
            Journey by Cattle Truck to the Frozen North
            Beyond the Urals

            Slave Labor in Germany
            Each village had its colony of Poles

            The Jedwabne Tragedy
                  Jedwabne: History - 60 Years Later
                  Poland's President on the subject of Jedwabne
                  Living in Truth
                  Poland's Institute of National Memory
                  Jedwabne: Guilt Justly Acknowledged
                  Trivializing Barbarity
                  The Need for Atonement
                  Remembering the righteous ten
                  Open Letter regarding Jedwabne
                  Bishop Gadecki about Jedwabne
                  Jedwabne shoud be Symbol of Reconciliation
                  We Trusted Each Other
                  Poles and the Jews: How Deep the Guilt?
                  The Germans were forcing Poles to take part in the Murders
                  Readers doubt credibility of war crime account by historian
                  Were the Jews in Jedwabne killed by the Gestapo?
                  The Jedwabne Matter: Did Gross Commit a Crime?
                  To the Moskals Friends
                  A Monument Made of Words
                  Goldhagen for Beginners
                  Regret without Guilt
                  Jedwabne, that's the new name of the Holocaust
                  Hell's last circle
                  Sixty Years Ago . . .
                  Jedwabne, 10th July, 1941
                  Jedwabne: Final Findings
                  We, Poles, have a special duty ...
                  Polish Crimes Against Jews Detailed
            The Koniuchy Massacre

            The Warsaw Ghetto
            Life and Death in the Ghetto established by the Germans
                  Gallery 1
                        1938: The Jewish population of Warsaw
                  Gallery 2
                        "Blood was ... staining his white beard"
                        Death sentence for leaving illegally the Jewish residential district
                        "Every step a corpse"
                        "Mendele had bloody diarrhea"
                  Gallery 3
                        July 22, 1942: A massive "Resettlement" begins
                        "Now the selection . . ."
                        "Who looked around, got killed . . ."
                        "To all who volunteering for relocation - three kilos of bread..."
                        August. 3, 1942: Concealment of Ringelblum's Archive
                        September 8, 1942: After the Deportation of 400,000 people
                        January 19, 1943: Determination to Resist Deportation with Force
                        Poles, Citizens, Freedom's Soldiers
                        April 19, 1943: Orders from Himmler - Destroy the Ghetto
                  Gallery 4
                        "All ... were taken alive. The lives of none were spared"
                        "Jews were burnt to death . . ."
                        "Some swore . . ."
                        May 8, 1943: The uprising's leaders die by their own hand . . .
                        May 19, 1943: ". . . we succeed in destroying 56,065 Jews"
                        April 19, 1993: On the 50th anniversary
                  Poetry Room
                        Itzhak Katzenelson: I had a Dream
                        Tadeusz Rózewicz: The Living Were Dying
                        Wislawa Szymborska: Still
                        Czeslaw Milosz: Campo dei Fiori
                        Mieczyslaw Jastrun: Here Too as in Jerusalem
                        Impediments to Survival
                        Exiting the Ghetto
                        Sheltering on the Aryan Side

            The Warsaw Uprising - 1.VIII.1944
            An assertion of sovereignty and hope - Start
            Gallery 1
                  Historical Context
                  "As the 'W' hour approached . . ."
                  The Recollections of Krystyna Fundalifiska
                  As the "W" hour approaches.
                  Women couriers brave German fire
                  The cathedral of St. John collapsed to-day
                  Women delivering ammunition through the sewers
                  Shelled by German artillery
                  Evacuation through the sewers
                  Attacks decimate the civilian population
                        I was 16 at the time
                        "You will be lame, but you won't die."
                        I checked and rechecked my aim
            "For over two months..."
            The Warsaw Uprising

            Warsaw's Royal Castle
            Story of its destruction during WWII

            Battle of Britain
            The Great Air Battle
            "My God, They Are Doing It!"

Polonian History
     History of Panna Maria, TX
           The First Polish Americans Find Hope in Texas
           150 Years of Continuance and Dispersal
     The Polish Blue Army

     Eastern Rite Churches

     "Woman Question" Returns to Poland
     Racist Language
           Racist Language and the Polish-Jewish Discourse
           I am ... a countryman of Jan Karski
     Finding Families
           Looking for a village and finding a family

     History's Impact on Polish Art
     Images of Women in Polish Painting
           The poetry of Halina Poswiatowska
     Polish Cinema
           Kanal - A film by Andrzej Wajda
           Lotna - A film by Andrzej Wajda
           Fever - A 1980 film by Agnieszka Holland
           Quo Vadis? - A film by Jerzy Kawalerowicz
           Pan Tadeusz - A 1999 film by Andrzej Wajda
           The Storyline and Context of Andrzej Wajda's film Pan Tadeusz
           Potop (The Deluge) - A 1974 film by Jerzy Hoffman
           Wesele (The Wedding)- A 1973 film by Andrzej Wajda
     Polish Poster Art
     Art from the Socialist Realism Period
     Totalitarian Art
           The Depth of the Destruction
           Monumental Public Works
           Nazism and Degenerate Art
           The Ideologues of the "Kampfbund"
           Critics of the "Kunst der Nation"
           The Exhibition "Entartete Kunst"
           Artwork shown in Official Exhibitions
           Communist Realism
           The Ideas of Revolution
            A Generally Enforced Style
           The Period of Social Realism
     Theater - The Association of Theatrical Practices Gardzienice
     Warsaw's Glorious Royal Castle

     Christmas Eve in Poland and Polonia
     Wycinanki: Polish Artistic Papercuts
           Lowicz Wycinanki
           Kurpie Wycinanki
           British Airways - Celestial Art
           Wycinanki - Then and Now
           Wycinanki: 1957

Reference Section
     Reading Lists
           Recommended Reading: Polish History
           Recommended Reading: 20th Century Polish History
           Recommended Reading: Polish Military History
           Recommended Reading: Polish-American Issues
           Recommended Reading: Holocaust Studies, Polish-Jewish Relations
           Recommended Reading: Polish Social & Cultural Issues
           Recommended Reading: Memoirs
           Recommended Reading: Literature & Fiction
     Telephone Area Codes