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Poland in the Classroom
Reasearch Materials
FOR THE STUDENT
Poland on the Web
Annotated links to
Poland related information
Info-Poland student
Polish Studies at US
colleges and universities
Poland in the Classroom
Resource Materials
FOR THE CHILDREN
Info-Poland reader
Book Chapters from books
on Poland related subjects
Poland
      Basic Information
      Maps
            Administrative and Topographic Maps of Poland
            Historical Maps of Poland 1025-1945
            Bielecki's Historical Maps of Poland 1772-2000
            Interwar Maps of Poland 1918- 1939
            World War II Maps 1939 -1945
            Demographic Maps of Poland
            Ethnicity and Linguistic Maps
            Origins and Definition: Polska, Wielkopolska and Malopolska
      The 24 Largest Cities
      Past and Present Regions of Poland
      Poznan: The Legendary Cradle of Poland
            Poznan International Fair
            Poznan'S Cathedral
            Poznan's Institutions of Higher Education
            Ratusz (Town Hall)
            The Fara Church
            The Raczynski Library
            The National Museum
                  Piotr Michalowski (1800-1855)
            Hotel Bazar
            The Okraglak
            The Opera - Teatr Wielki
            Imperial Palace Cultural Center
            Monument to the Victims of June '56
     Poland: Economic Comparisons

Historical
      Short History of Poland
      Last Two and a Half Centuries
      Library of Congress History of Poland: The Historical Setting
            Early History Until 1385
            The Jagiellonian Era, 1385-1572
            The Noble Republic, 1572-1795
            Partitioned Poland
            Independence Won and Lost, 1914-45
            The Polish People's Republic
            History of Poland: as a single document
      The Roots of Polish National Identity
      The History of Poland and its Literature since 1918
      1970-1997: A Polish Chronology

Symbols of Poland
      Names: the Nation's, its People
      Constitution Day: May 3, 1791
      The White Eagle
      The Flag
      Poland's National Anthem
      Virtuti Militari Medal

Distinguished Polish Personalities
      Józef Bem: General; Polish and Hungarian Leader
      Nicholas Copernicus: He who Moved the Earth
            Nicolaus Copernicus: His Place in the History of Astronomy
            When the Earth Moved: Copernicus and his Heliocentric System
            Stamp
      Walery Goetel: Geologist, Ecologist, Conservationist
      Wladyslaw Hasior: Notable 20th Century Artist
            Abandoned Banners: Wladyslaw Hasior (1928 - 1999)
            Impudent Artist
            Death of an Artist
            Sculptures: The Firebirds
            Sculptures: The Iron Organs
            Poetic Meanings of Utilitarian Objects
            Banners
            Household Chapels Cycle
            Assemblages
      John Paul II: Pontiff - Karol Wojtyla
      Jan Karski: Wartime Courier and Hero
            A Note by Michael Szporer
      Ryszard Kapuscinski: Third World Journalist Extraordinary
            From Reporting to Literature
            Idi Amin Dada and African Dictatorships
      Janusz Korczak: Author, Educator and Hero
      Tadeusz Kosciuszko: A Military Genius
            Timeline
            Kosciuszko's Victory at Raclawice
            The Military Genius of Tadeusz Kosciuszko
            Tadeusz Kosciuszko: A Polish Son of Liberty
            Kosciuszko and West Point
            Gallery of Monuments
            Gallery of Monuments - Slideshow
            Gallery of Portraits
            Gallery of Portraits - Slideshow
            Gallery of Historical Paintings
      Ryszard Kuklinski: A Patriot of Courage and Conviction
            Book Review: A Secret Life
      Rafal Lemkin and Genocide
      Jan Matejko: Painter and Patriot
            Jan Matejko, Fostering Polish Nationalism
            Understanding Matejko'sThe Battle of Grunwald
      Adam Mickiewicz: a Cultural Icon
            Adam Mickiewicz, Poet, Patriot and Prophet
            Andrzej Wajda and the filming of Pan Tadeusz
            The Storyline and Context of Andrzej Wajda's film Pan Tadeusz
      Czeslaw Milosz: Poet and Nobel Laurate
            Avantgarde & Classicism
            Catastrophism
            Rescuing Poetry
            Campo di Fiori
            Triumphal Poems
            "Ars Poetica"
            About Emigration
            Polish Character
            Milosz - The Moralist
            Milosz - The Translator
            The Socrealism
      Ignacy Jan Paderewski: Patriot and Piano Virtuoso
            Time-line
            Paderewski: Sensational Pianist
            Patriot, Composer, Piano Virtuoso, Philanthropist, Statesman
      Kazimierz Pulaski: Father of American Cavalry
            The Deeds of Kazimierz Pulaski
            Gallery of Monuments
            Gallery of Paintings
            Commemorative Stamp
            Commemorative Postal Card
      Wladyslaw (Wladyslaw) Reymont: Master of Descriptive Prose
            Time-line
            The Promised Land: Lódz was waking
            Keen Observer and Master of Descriptive Prose
            Strike! Adapting to the Industrial Revolution
            Autobiographical Notes of the Nobel Laureate
            Reymont in America
            The Nobel Prize: A Bitter Irony
            "The Promised Land:" Three comments
            Wajda and the making and revising of The Promised Land
            Wajda's use of Contrasts: Aesthetics and Style
            The Knightly Ethos: Its Disintegration
      Tadeusz Rozewicz: A Giant of Polish Postwar Literature
            The Witnesses - Text and Subtext
      Bruno Schulz: Creator of Dream-like Fiction
            Bruno Schulz Timeline
            Bruno Schulz and Psychoanalsis: The Images of Women in August
      Irena Sendler: WWII Rescuer and Hero
      Bona Sforza: Poland's Italian Queen
            Poland's Italian Queen
      Henryk Sienkiewicz: the Most Translated Author
            Henryk Sienkiewicz and Quo Vadis
            Letters from Africa (excerpts)
            Forum Romanum (excerpts from Quo Vadis)
            The Intricacies of Translation
      Isaac Bashevis Singer: Yiddish Author and Nobelist
           How the Singer Brothers Came to Be in America
      Karol Szymanowski: a Leading Composer for the Stage
            A Leading Composer of the Modern Music Theater
      Wislawa Szymborska, the Mozart of Poetry
            Poem: Some Like Poetry
            Poem: The End and the Beginning
            Delightful Inventiveness, Prodigious Imagination
            Six October 1996 Warsaw Voice articles
            In Buffalo: The Search for the Word: a guided tour of the exhibition
            In Krakow: Wislawa Szymborska's Seeking the Word
            Szymborska's Manuscripts
      Stanislaw Wyspianski: Painter and Formost Dramatist
            Timeline
      Witkacy: S. I. Witkiewicz: Avant-garde Dramatist and Artist
            Biography
            Witkacy's Search for Self: An Introduction
            Witkacy: Stanislaw Ignacy Witkiewicz 1885-1939
            The Theater of Life or The Search for Self
      Karol Wojtyla - John Paul II: Pontiff
            Time-line
            Monuments in Poland
            Do not be afraid
            Look to Home
            Was the Pope Polish? Yes, Thank God

Notable Polish Americans
      Eugene Dyczkowski: Artist and Cultural Leader
           On the Centenary of his Birth
           The Officers Club Murals
           Dyczkowski: Paintings
      Ralph Modjeski: Civil Engineer
            Bridge Builder Extraordinary
      Matt Urban: Most Decorated WWII Soldier
            The Lt. Col. Matt Urban Story
            Congressional Medal of Honor Citation
      Authors: Novelists and Others
            Eva Hoffman -- Author and editor
            Leslie Pietrzyk -- Chronicler of Polish-American Women's Lives
            Witold Rybczynski -- Architect and Accomplished Author
            Suzanne Strempek Shea -- A Touch That Could Not Be More Tender

Events in Polish History

      The
Beginnings of the Polish State (922-1025)
            Mieszko I and Boleslaw Chrobry
            Poland in the Early Chronicles

     
Poland-Lithuania
            Four Centuries of the European Union's precursor

      The
Battle of Grunwald (Tannenberg) (1410)
            Understanding Matejko's The Battle of Grunwald
            Grunwald: A Monument to Hearten Polish Spirits
            Tannenberg: a Monument of German Pride

      The Reign of the
Vasa Dynasty (1587-1668)
            Introduction and the events of the Swedish Deluge: 1655-1660.
            Henryk Sienkiewicz's epic novel: Potop (The Deluge)
            Potop (The Deluge) - A film by Jerzy Hoffman

      The Second World War: 1939 - 1945
            The Siberic Gehenna
            The Millions of Poles Deported to the USSR in 1939-4
            The Travails of the Poplewski Family
            You Have Half an Hour ...
            Journey by Cattle Truck to the Frozen North
            Beyond the Urals

            Slave Labor in Germany
            Each village had its colony of Poles

            Atrocities
            The Jedwabne Tragedy
                  Jedwabne: History - 60 Years Later
                  Poland's President on the subject of Jedwabne
                  Living in Truth
                  Poland's Institute of National Memory
                  Jedwabne: Guilt Justly Acknowledged
                  Trivializing Barbarity
                  The Need for Atonement
                  Remembering the righteous ten
                  Open Letter regarding Jedwabne
                  Bishop Gadecki about Jedwabne
                  Jedwabne shoud be Symbol of Reconciliation
                  We Trusted Each Other
                  Poles and the Jews: How Deep the Guilt?
                  The Germans were forcing Poles to take part in the Murders
                  Readers doubt credibility of war crime account by historian
                  Were the Jews in Jedwabne killed by the Gestapo?
                  The Jedwabne Matter: Did Gross Commit a Crime?
                  To the Moskals Friends
                  A Monument Made of Words
                  Goldhagen for Beginners
                  Regret without Guilt
                  Jedwabne, that's the new name of the Holocaust
                  Hell's last circle
                  Sixty Years Ago . . .
                  Jedwabne, 10th July, 1941
                  Jedwabne: Final Findings
                  We, Poles, have a special duty ...
                  Polish Crimes Against Jews Detailed
            The Koniuchy Massacre

            The Warsaw Ghetto
            Life and Death in the Ghetto established by the Germans
                  Introduction
                  Gallery 1
                        1938: The Jewish population of Warsaw
                  Gallery 2
                        "Blood was ... staining his white beard"
                        Death sentence for leaving illegally the Jewish residential district
                        "Every step a corpse"
                        "Mendele had bloody diarrhea"
                  Gallery 3
                        July 22, 1942: A massive "Resettlement" begins
                        "Now the selection . . ."
                        "Who looked around, got killed . . ."
                        "To all who volunteering for relocation - three kilos of bread..."
                        August. 3, 1942: Concealment of Ringelblum's Archive
                        September 8, 1942: After the Deportation of 400,000 people
                        January 19, 1943: Determination to Resist Deportation with Force
                        Poles, Citizens, Freedom's Soldiers
                        April 19, 1943: Orders from Himmler - Destroy the Ghetto
                  Gallery 4
                        "All ... were taken alive. The lives of none were spared"
                        "Jews were burnt to death . . ."
                        "Some swore . . ."
                        May 8, 1943: The uprising's leaders die by their own hand . . .
                        May 19, 1943: ". . . we succeed in destroying 56,065 Jews"
                        April 19, 1993: On the 50th anniversary
                  Poetry Room
                        Itzhak Katzenelson: I had a Dream
                        Tadeusz Rózewicz: The Living Were Dying
                        Wislawa Szymborska: Still
                        Czeslaw Milosz: Campo dei Fiori
                        Mieczyslaw Jastrun: Here Too as in Jerusalem
                  Surviving
                        Impediments to Survival
                        Exiting the Ghetto
                        Sheltering on the Aryan Side

            The Warsaw Uprising - 1.VIII.1944
            An assertion of sovereignty and hope - Start
            Introduction
            Gallery 1
                  Historical Context
                  "As the 'W' hour approached . . ."
                  The Recollections of Krystyna Fundalifiska
            Diaries
                  As the "W" hour approaches.
                  Women couriers brave German fire
                  The cathedral of St. John collapsed to-day
                  Women delivering ammunition through the sewers
                  Shelled by German artillery
                  Evacuation through the sewers
                  Attacks decimate the civilian population
            Recollections
                        I was 16 at the time
                        "You will be lame, but you won't die."
                        I checked and rechecked my aim
            "For over two months..."
            The Warsaw Uprising

            Warsaw's Royal Castle
            Story of its destruction during WWII

            Battle of Britain
            The Great Air Battle
            "My God, They Are Doing It!"

Polonian History
     History of Panna Maria, TX
           The First Polish Americans Find Hope in Texas
           150 Years of Continuance and Dispersal
     The Polish Blue Army

Religions
     Eastern Rite Churches

Issues
     "Woman Question" Returns to Poland
     Racist Language
           Racist Language and the Polish-Jewish Discourse
           I am ... a countryman of Jan Karski
     Finding Families
           Looking for a village and finding a family

Art
     History's Impact on Polish Art
     Images of Women in Polish Painting
     Poetry
           The poetry of Halina Poswiatowska
     Polish Cinema
           Kanal - A film by Andrzej Wajda
           Lotna - A film by Andrzej Wajda
           Fever - A 1980 film by Agnieszka Holland
           Quo Vadis? - A film by Jerzy Kawalerowicz
           Pan Tadeusz - A 1999 film by Andrzej Wajda
           The Storyline and Context of Andrzej Wajda's film Pan Tadeusz
           Potop (The Deluge) - A 1974 film by Jerzy Hoffman
           Wesele (The Wedding)- A 1973 film by Andrzej Wajda
     Polish Poster Art
     Art from the Socialist Realism Period
     Totalitarian Art
           The Depth of the Destruction
           Monumental Public Works
           Nazism and Degenerate Art
           The Ideologues of the "Kampfbund"
           Critics of the "Kunst der Nation"
           The Exhibition "Entartete Kunst"
           Artwork shown in Official Exhibitions
           Communist Realism
           The Ideas of Revolution
            A Generally Enforced Style
           The Period of Social Realism
     Theater - The Association of Theatrical Practices Gardzienice
     Warsaw's Glorious Royal Castle

Customs
     Christmas Eve in Poland and Polonia
     Wycinanki: Polish Artistic Papercuts
           Lowicz Wycinanki
           Kurpie Wycinanki
           British Airways - Celestial Art
           Wycinanki - Then and Now
           Wycinanki: 1957

Reference Section
     Glossary
     Reading Lists
           Recommended Reading: Polish History
           Recommended Reading: 20th Century Polish History
           Recommended Reading: Polish Military History
           Recommended Reading: Polish-American Issues
           Recommended Reading: Holocaust Studies, Polish-Jewish Relations
           Recommended Reading: Polish Social & Cultural Issues
           Recommended Reading: Memoirs
           Recommended Reading: Literature & Fiction
     Telephone Area Codes
Arts & Culture
      Architecture
      Cinema/Film
            General
                  Databases
                  Essays
            Cinema Personalities
                Film Directors
                   Alphabetical
                   Chronological
                   by Number of Awards
                     Filip Bajon
                     Jerzy Hoffman
                     Agnieszka Holland
                     Krystyna Janda
                     Janusz Kaminski
                     Jerzy Kawalerowicz
                     Krzysztof Kieslowski
                     Jan Jakub Kolski
                     Tadeusz Konwicki
                     Kazimierz Kutz
                     Juliusz Machulski
                     Janusz Majewski
                     Lech Majewski
                     Wladyslaw Pasikowski
                     Roman Polanski
                     Andrzej Sekula
                     Jerzy Skolimowski
                     Wladyslaw Starewicz
                     Jerzy Stuhr
                     Andrzej Wajda
                     Krzysztof Zanussi
                     Andrzej Zulawski
            Cinematographers
                  Janusz Kaminski
            Controversial potrayals of Poland
                  Uprising
            Selected Polish Films
                  Ashes and Diamonds
                  Fever
                  Kanal
                  Korczak
                  Lotna
                  Pan Tadeusz
                  The Pianist
                  Promised Land
                  Potop (The Deluge)
                  Quo Vadis
                  With Fire and Sword
                  Wesele (The Wedding)
      Culinary Arts
      Cultural Events
      Dance
      Folk Arts and Customs
            Bookstores, etc.
            General
            Bagpipes
            Box Making
            Folk Costumes
            Folkdancing
            Szopki (Christmas Cribs)
            Wood Carving
            Woodcuts
            Wycinanki
      Icons of Poland
      Language
                  Dictionaries
                  The Art of Translation
                  The Languages of Poland
                  The Polish Language
                  Slavic Languages
            Learning Polish
                  Academic Year in Poland
                  Summer Schools in Poland
                  Summer Schools in the U.S.
                  Video and CD-based learning
                  Web-based learning
      Literature
            Databases
            Dictionaries
            History of Polish Literature
            Bookstores
            Virtual Libraries
            Polonian Authors
                 General
                 Bukowski, Anthony
                 Hoffman, Ewa
                 Pietrzyk, Leslie
                 Rybczynski, Witold
                 Strempek Shea, Suzanne
                 Zelazny, Roger
            Fairy Tales
                 The Dragon of the Wawel Hill
                 How the Pussy Willow Got Its Fur
                 Janosik who robbed the rich and gave to the poor
                 Jurata, the Queen of the Baltic Sea
                 Lech and the White Eagle
                 Legends about the Linden Tree
                 The Mermaid of the Vistula
                 The Origins of the Piast Dynasty
                 Queen Wanda who wouldn't marry a German
                 The Sleeping Knights
                 St. John's night
                 The Trumpeter of Krakow
            Poetry
                  Essays, Antropology
                  Hymns & Anthems
                         General
                         Bogurodzica
                         Boze, cos Polske
                         Boze Ojcze, twoje dzieci
                         Czerwone Maki Na Monte Cassino
                         Gaude, Mater Polonia
                         Hymn do milosci ojczyzny
                         Kiedy ranne wstaja zorze
                         Mazurek Dabrowskiego
                         Nie opuszczaj nas
                         Rota
                         Z dymem pozarow
                         Zeby Polska byla Polska
                  Old Polish Literature
                      Middle Ages
                        Religious Poetry
                        Secular Poetry
                      Renaissance
                        Janicjusz, Klemens
                        Kochanowski, Jan
                      Baroque
                        Naborowski, Daniel
                        Szarzynski, Mikolaj Sep
                  Baczynski
                  Baranczak
                  Bialoszewski
                  Borowski
                  Broniewski
                  Brzechwa
                  Celtis
                  Ciolek
                  Galczynski
                  Grabowiecki
                  Herbert
                          Biographies, etc.
                          Poems
                  Janicjusz
                  Karpowicz
                  Kochanowski
                  Konopnicka
                  Lesmian
                  Liebert
                  Lipska
                  Lubomirski
                  Mickiewicz
                          Biographies, etc.
                          Poems
                  Milosz
                         Biographies, etc.
                         Poems
                  Morsztyn
                  Naborowski
                  Norwid
                         Biographies, etc.
                         Poems
                  Osiecka
                  Pawlikowska-Jasnorzewska
                  Poswiatowska
                  Rej
                  Różewicz
                         Biographies, etc.
                         Poems
                  Slota
                  Słowacki
                         Biographies, etc.
                         Poems
                         Prose
                  Stachura
                  Staff
                  Sep Szarzynski
                  Sztaudynger
                  Szymborska
                         Biographies, etc.
                         Poems
                  Tuwim
                  Twardowski
                  Wat
                  Witkiewicz
                  Wyspianski, Stanislaw
                        Biographies, etc.
                        Paintings etc.
                        Works
                              Wesele (The Wedding)
                  Zagajewski
                         Biographies, etc.
                         Poems
                  Zdanowicz
            Prose
                  Andrzejewski
                  Chwin
                  Conrad
                  Gombrowicz
                  Jasienski
                  Kapuscinski
                  Lem
                  Lewkowicz
                  Pilch
                  Prus
                  Reymont
                  Schultz
                  Sienkiewicz
                        biographies, etc.
                        texts
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                  Gombrowicz
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                  Mickiewicz
                          Biographies, etc.
                          Poems
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                         Biography, etc.
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                  Wyspianski
                        Biographies, etc.
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                  Nie opuszczaj nas
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            Individual Artists: Visual Index
                 Ajdukiewicz, Tadeusz
                 Axentowicz, Teodor
                 Baciarelli, Marcello
                 Bellotto, Bernardo
                 Berlewi, Henryk
                 Bilinska-Bohdanowicza, Anna
                 Boznanska, Olga
                 Brandt, Jozef
                 Brodowski, Antoni
                 Chelmonski, Jozef
                 Chmielowski, Adam
                 Chwistek, Leon
                 Ciecierski, Tomasz
                 Cwenarski, Waldemar
                 Cybis, Boleslaw
                 Cybis, Jan
                 Czachórski, Wladyslaw
                 Czechowicz, Szymon
                 Debicki, Stanislaw
                 Dolabella, Tommaso
                 Dyczkowski, Eugene
                 Eibisch, Eugeniusz
                 Falat, Julian
                 Filipkiewicz, Stefan
                 Gerson, Wojciech
                 Gierymski, Maksymilian
                 Gottlieb, Maurycy
                 Grottger, Artur
                 Gryglewski, Aleksander
                 Gwozdecki, Gustaw
                 Hiller, Karol
                 Hoffman, Vlastimil
                 Hrynkowski, Jan
                 Kanelba, Rajmund
                 Kaplinski, Leon
                 Kober, Marcin
                 Kossak, Jerzy
                 Kossak, Juliusz
                 Kossak, Wojciech
                 Kotsis, Aleksander
                 Kramsztyk, Roman
                 Krcha, Emil
                 Krzyzanowski, Konrad
                 Kuntze-Konicz, Tadeusz
                 Kwiatkowski, Teofil
                 Lange, Antoni
                 Laveaux, Ludwik de
                 Loeffler, Leopold
                 Makowski, Tadeusz
                 Malczewski, Jacek
                 Malecki, Wladyslaw
                 Matejko, Jan
                 Mehoffer, Józef
                 Menkes, Zygmunt
                 Michalowski, Piotr
                 Mierzejewski, Jacek
                 Norblin, Jan Piotr
                 Orlowski, Alexander
                 Pankiewicz, Jozef
                 Pautsch, Fryderyk
                 Plersch, Jan Bogumil
                 Podkowinski, Wladyslaw
                 Pronaszko, Andrzej
                 Pronaszko, Zbigniew
                 Pruszkowski, Tadeusz
                 Rodakowski, Henryk
                 Rustem, Jan
                 Ruszczyc, Ferdynand
                 Rybkowski, Tadeusz
                 Rzepinski, Czeslaw
                 Schultz, Daniel
                 Setkowicz, Adam
                 Sidorowicz, Zygmunt
                 Siemiradzki, Henryk
                 Simmler, Jozef
                 Smuglewicz, Franciszek
                 Sobocki, Leszek
                 Stabrowski, Kazimierz
                 Stattler, Wojciech Korneli
                 Stazewski, Henryk
                 Strobel, Bartholomäus
                 Stryjenska, Zofia
                 Suchodolski, January
                 Tetmajer, Wlodzimierz
                 Tricius, Jan
                 Waliszewski, Zygmunt
                 Weiss, Wojciech
                 Wierusz-Kowalski
                 Witkiewicz, Stanislaw Ignacyz
                 Wroblewski, Andrzej
                 Wyczólkowski, Leon
                 Wyspianski, Stanislaw
                 Zaleski, Marcin
            Movements/Styles
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                 Cieslewicz, Roman
                 Czeczot, Andrzej
                 Czerniawski, Jerzy
                 Drewinski, Lex
                 Eidrigevicius, Stasys
                 Fangor, Wojciech
                 Górka, Wiktor
                 Gorowski, Mieczyslaw
                 Kalarus, Roman
                 Lenica, Jan
                 Mlodozeniec, Jan
                 Olbinski, Rafal
                 Pagowski, Andrzej
                 Pluta, Julian
                 Sadowski, Wiktor
                 Sawka, Jan
                 Starowieyski, Franciszek
                 Swierzy, Waldemar
                 Tomaszewski, Henryk
                 Trepkowski, Tadeusz
                 Urbaniec, Maciej
                 Walkuski, Wieslaw
                 Wasilewski, Mieczyslaw
                 Zamecznik, Wojciech
         Sculpture
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            Sculptors- Chronological Listing
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                 Abakanowicz, Magdalena
                 Balka Miroslaw
                 Bednarski, Krzysztof
                 Berdyszak, Jan
                 Berés, Jerzy
                 Biegas, Boleslaw
                 Chlanda, Marek
                 Dunikowski, Ksawery
                 Hasior, Wladyslaw
                 Jarnuszkiewicz, Jerzy
                 Kobro, Katarzyna
                 Kowalski, Grzegorz
                 Laszczka, Konstanty
                 Mitoraj, Igor
                 Monaldi, Jakub
                 Sosnowski, Tomasz Oskar
                 Szapoczników, Alina
                 Szczepkowski, Jan
                 Tatarkiewicz, Józef Jakub
                 Wittig, Edward
                 Zemla, Gustav
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            Interim Constitution of February 19, 1947
            Constitution of July 22, 1952
            Interim Constitution of October 17, 1992
            Constitution of April 2, 1997
      Polonian History
            General
            Regional: Connecticut River Valley
            Regional: South Texas Plains
            Regional: New York City
            Regional: Chicago
            Regional: Milwaukee
      History of Religious Denominations
            Polish Catholic National Church
            Protestantism
            Roman Catholicism
      Judaica: The History of Polish Jews
      Poland's Kings
      Heads of State, Government, etc.
      Notable Poles
            Beck, Jozef
            Chopin, Fryderyk
            Copernicus, Nicholas
            Curie, Maria Sklodowska
            Goetel, Walery
            Gorecki, Henryk Mikolaj
            Gronkiewicz-Waltz, Hanna
            Grotowski, Jerzy
            Haller, Jozef
            Herbert, Zbigniew
                          Biographies, etc.
                          Poems
            Holland, Agnieszka
            Jaruzelski, Wojciech
            John Paul II
            Kapuscinski, Ryszard
            Karski, Jan
            Kieslowski, Krzysztof
            Kilar, Wojciech
            Korczak, Janusz
            Kolakowski, Leszek
            Kosciuszko, Tadeusz
            Kuklinski, Ryszard
            Kwasniewski, Aleksander
            Lemkin, Rafal
            Lutoslawski, Witold
            Luxemburg, Rosa
            Mickiewicz, Adam
                          Biographies, etc.
                          Poems
            Mikolajczyk, Stanislaw
            Milosz, Czeslaw
                         Biographies, etc.
                         Poems
            Moniuszko, Stanislaw
                         Biographies
                         Compositions
                             Halka
                             The Haunted Manor (Straszny Dwor)
            Oginski, Michal Kleofas
            Paderewski, Ignacy
            Penderecki, Krzysztof
                        Biographies, etc.
                        Compositions
                              Polish Requiem
                              St. Luke Passion
                              Threnody
            Pilsudski, Jozef
            Polanski, Roman
            Poniatowski, Jozef
            Pulaski, Kazimierz
            Reymont, Wladyslaw
            Rotblat, Jozef
            Rozewicz, Tadeusz
                         Biography, etc.
                         Poems
            Rubinstein, Artur
            Schulz, Bruno
            Sendler, Irena
            Sforza, Bona
            Sienkiewicz, Henryk
                  Biographies, etc.
                  Texts
            Slowacki, Juliusz
                         Biographies, etc.
                         Poems
                         Prose
            Stachura, Edward
            Strzelecki, Pawel Edmund
            Szymanowski, Karol
            Szymborska, Wislawa
                         Biographies, etc.
                         Poems
            Wajda, Andrzej
            Walesa, Lech
            Wieniawski, Henry
            Witkiewicz, Stanislaw Ignacy
            Wyspianski, Stanislaw
                        Biographies, etc.
                        Painting
                        Works
                           Wesele (The Wedding)
            Wojtyla, Karol
      Notable Polonians
             Karge, Joseph
             Kosciuszko, Tadeusz
             Mikulski, Barbara A.
             Modjeski , Ralph
             Muskie, Edmund S.
             Paderewski, Ignacy
             Pipes, Richard
             Pulaski, Kazimierz
             Rybczynski, Zbig
             Ulam, Adam
             Urban, Matt
             Zakrewska, Dr. Marie E.
      Reading and Mailing Lists
      Early Middle Ages
      Interwar Period
      Jagiellonian Era
      The Napolenic Interlude
      The Noble Republic
      The Period of Partitions
      The Polish-Soviet War, 1919-1920
      WWI
      WWII
            Overview
            Enigma Machine - 1939
            German Invasion - 1939
            Soviet Invasion - 1939
            Escape Routes - 1939-1940
            Slave Labor in Germany - 1939 -1945
            Army in France - 1939-1940
            Polish Navy - 1939-1945
            Siberic Gehenna - 1939-1942
            Norwegian Campaign - 1940
            Katyn Forest Massacre - 1940
            Battle of Britain - 1940
            German Occupation: 1939-1945
            AK: The Home Army: 1939 - 1945
            Interethnic Strife: 1939-1945
                         Jedwabne
                         Koniuchy
                         Polish-Ukrainian
            German Death Camps: 1940-1945
                         Auschwitz - Birkenau
                         Majdanek
                         Treblinka
            The Lodz Ghetto: 1940-1944
            The WWII Warsaw Ghetto: 1940-1943
            Polish Government Documents 1942-1944
            Zegota: Rescue of Jews 1942-1944
            Warsaw Uprising - 1944
            Polish Second Corps: 1943-1945
            Battle of Monte Cassino - 1944
            Battle of the Falaise Pocket - 1944
            The Diplomatic Front
            The Aftermath
      The Years under Socialism
      The Third Republic
      Accession to NATO
      Accession to European Union
 

Organizations and Issues
      Organizations in Poland
            Foundations
            Institutions of Higher Education
            Non-governmental Organizations
                  Individual Organizations
                         Academy for the Development of Philanthropy in Poland
                         Amnesty International
                         Anti-Corruption Program
                         Ars Cantata - Mazovian Choirs and Orchestras
                         Association of Handicapped Persons
       &nb               Association for Polish Municipalities
                         Barka: Foundation for the Promotion of Mutual Help
                         Borussia Culture Association
                         Borderland Foundation
                         Carpathian Foundation
                         Carpathian Society
                         Carpathian Heritage Society
                         Christian Association of Handicapped Persons - Ognisko
                         Center for Blind Children - "Rainbow"
                         Center for Citizenship Education
                         Center for International Relations
                         "Center For Paslek Economic Development" Association
                         Center for Social and Economic Research (CASE)
                         Civil Society Development Foundation
                         Cooperation Fund
                         Education for Democracy Foundation
                         Ekoland: Association of Organic Producers
                         Environmental Management Training Center
                         European Students Forum
                         Forum for Non-Governmental Initiatives
                         Foundation for the Development of Polish Agriculture (FDPA)
                         Foundation for Social and Economic Initiatives (FISE)
                         Foundation "Create a Chance"
                         Foundation in Support of Local Democracy
                         Habitat for Humanity Foundation
                         Heart Transplantation Association: Group in Zabrze
                         Helsinki Foundation for Human Rights
                         Institute for Studies on the Foundations of Democracy
                         Institute of Public Affairs (ISP)
                         Institute of Strategic Studies
                         International Visegrad Fund
                         Karta Center
                         Klon/Jawor Association
                         La Strada Foundation against Trafficking in Women
                         Leopold Kronenberg Foundation
                         "NEVER AGAIN" ASSOCIATION
                         Nobody's Children Foundation
                         One Percent Assignation Campaign
                         Our Land Foundation - Clean up Poland
                         OSKa National Women's Information Center
                         Partners for Democratic Change - Poland
                         Pogranicze: Borderlands Foundation
                         Poland-America-Ukraine Cooperation Initiative (PAUCI)
                         Polish-American Community Assistance Fund
                         Polish-American Freedom Foundation
                         Polish Association for Legal Education
                         Polish Children & Youth Foundation
                         Polish-Czech-Slovak Solidarity Foundation
                         Polish Environmental Partnership Foundation
                         Polish Humanist Association
                         Polish Humanitarian Organisation
                         Polish Know-How Foundation
                         Polish Marfan Association
                         Polish Robert Schuman Foundation
                         Polish Scouting and Guiding Association
                         Polish Society of the Development of Mountain Areas
                         Polish-Ukrainian European School
                         Regional Environmental Center Poland
                         Round Table No.2 - Gdansk, Poland
                         Rural Development Foundation
                         SPLOT Network of Information and Support for NGOs
                         Transparency International Poland
                         Urszula Jaworska Foundation
                         United Way of Poland Foundation
                         Volunteer Centers
                         Wiez Montly
                         Women's Rights Center
                         Compedia Listings of NGOs
                         Trust for Civil Society in Central & Eastern Europe
                         ngo.pl
                         Foundations in Poland
                         Batory Foundation
                  Listings
                  Polish Scouts
            Polish Academy of Sciences.
            Worldwide Polish Community Assoc.
      Organizations Abroad
            Polonian Organizations
                  General Listings
                  Australia
                  Canada
                  Europe
                  United States - Local
                  United States - Nationwide
                  Youth Organizations
                        Folk-dancing Ensambles
                        Polish Scouts
                        Schools
            Polish Diplomatic Posts
            PolishTourist & Cultural Offices
            Foundations
            Slavic Organizations
      Polonian Discussion Groups
      Social Issues
            Environmental Protection
            Family Planning
            Lemko Cultural Revival
            Minority Rights
            Poland's Roma (Gypsies)
            Polish-Belarusian Relations
            Polish-German Relations
            Polish-Jewish Relations
            Polish-Lithuanian Relations
            Polish-Ukrainian Issues
            Women's Rights
 

Population and People
      Demographics
      Genealogy
      Minorities
      Augsburg Evangelicals (Lutherans)
      Buddhists
      Famous and Notable Poles
      Germans
      Greek Catholics (Unites)
      Jews
            Jewish Community
            Jewish Heritage
                  General
                  Cemeteries
                  Shtetls
                  Synagogue
            Jewish Life in Prewar Poland
            Jewish Press
      Kashubians
      Lemkos (Ruthenians)
      Muslims
      Orthodox (Eastern Rite)
      Poles in Belarus
      Polish-Americans
      Polish-Canadians
      Polish Paganism
      Protestantism
      Reformed Evangelicals
      Roma (Gypsies)
      Roman Catholics
      Ukrainians
      Women
      Xmas and Easter Traditions
      Wedding Traditions
 

Recreation
      Birding
      Cycling
      Golf
      Horses
      Philately (Stamp Collection)
      Reenacting
      Rowing
      Skiing
      Soccer
      Speleology (cave exploration)  

Science and Health
      Archaeology
      Health
      Mathematics
            Banach, Stefan
            Banachiewicz, Tadeusz
            Brozek, Jan
            Copernicus, Nicolaus
            Janiszewski, Zygmunt
            Kuratowski, Kazimierz
            Mertens, Franciszek
            Rejewski, Marian
            Sierpinski, Waclaw
            Ulam, Stanislaw
            Wazewski, Tadeusz
            Zaremba, Stanislaw
            Polish Mathematicians on Stamps
      Medicine
      Nobelists
      Polish Academy of Science
      Sciences
            Overview
            Botany
            Scientists
                  Bialobrzeski, Czeslaw
                  Bugajski, Slawomir
                  Copernicus, Nicolaus
                  Curie, Maria Sklodowska
                  Fajans, Kazimierz
                  Fiszdon, Wladyslaw
                  Funk, Kazimierz
                  Goetel, Walery
                  Grabowski, Antoni
                  Infeld, Leopold
                  Jablonski, Aleksander
                  Kryszewski, Marian
                  Lukasiewicz, Ignacy
                  Moscicki, Ignacy
                  Olszewski, Karol
                  Rajchman, Ludwik
                  Sedziwoj, Michal
                  Sniadecki, Jedrzej
                  Wroblewski, Zygmunt
            Zoology
      Social Sciences
            Philosophy
            Sociology
 

Travel and Tourism
      Accommmodations
            City Apartments
            Countryside Accommodations
            Hostels
            Hotels
            Student Hotels
      Bookstores, etc.
      Events: what where when
      Locations
            Administartive Units
            Archeology
            Castles
            Cities
                  Statistics
                  Smaller Towns
                  Bialystok
                  Bielsko-Biala
                  Bydgoszcz
                  Czestochowa
                  Gdynia
                  Gdansk
                  Kalisz
                  Kielce
                  Krakow
                  Lodz
                  Lublin
                  Poznan
                  Rzeszow
                  Sandomierz
                  Szczecin
                  Torun
                  Warsaw
                        General
                        Museums and Galleries
                  Wroclaw
                  Zakopane
                  Zielona Gora
            Cities that were Polish prior to 1945
                  Lwow
                  Wilno
            Climate/Weather
            Jewish Heritage
                  Shetlts
                  Synagogues
            Landscape
            Maps
                  Basic Information
                  Maps of Poland
                  Specialized Maps of Poland
                  Central and Eastern Europe
                  Cities and Towns
                  Historical Maps
                  Judaic History
            Mapservers
            Museums and Galleries
            Mountains
            National and other Parks
            Regions
            Rivers
      Exchange Rates
      Polish for Beginners
      Regulations and Conditions
      Transportation
            Air Transportation
            Railways
      Travel Advice
      Trips and Tours
 

Country Profiles
      Britain's Foreign Office
      British Broadcasting Corporation
      Central Intelligence Agency
      Central Intelligence Agency (annotated)
      Country Reports
      Country Watch
      Discover Poland
      Lonely Planet Guides
      Polish Government
      polen.nu
      Slavic Connection
      U.S. State Department
 

Country Guides
      Bella On Line
      CIESIN Poland
      GoPoland
      Info-Poland
      Ministry of Foreign Affairs
      NationMaster
      Poland Now!
      poland.pl
      Polish National Tourist Office
      Polish World
      Traveller's Guide to Poland
      Welcome in Poland

Search Engines
      NetSprint
      onet.pl
      Poland.pl
      Szukacz
      Wirtualna Polska/Google

Photo and Photo Essays

Scholarly Conferences on Polish Matters

Internet Tools
ALABAMA
     University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa

ARIZONA
     Arizona State University
     University of Arizona

CALIFORNIA
     University of California, Berkeley
     University of California, Los Angeles
     University of Southern California, Los Angeles
     Stanford University, Stanford

COLORADO
     University of Colorado, Boulder

CONNECTICUT
     Central Connecticut State University, New Britain
     Connecticut College, New London
     Sacred Heart University, Fairfield
     University of Connecticut, Samford
     University of Connecticut, Storrs
     

DELAWARE
     University of Delaware, Newark

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
     American University, Washington, D.C.
     Catholic University of America, Washington, D.C.
     George Washington University, Washington, D.C.
     Georgetown University, Washington, D.C.
     Library of Congress, D.C.

FLORIDA
     University of Florida, Gainesville
     University of South Florida

HAWAII
     University of Hawaii, Honolulu

IDAHO
      University of Idaho, Moscow

ILLINOIS
     Columbia College, Chicago
     DePaul University, Chicago
     Illinois State University, Normal
     Loyola University, Chicago
     Northern Illinois University, De Kalb
     Northwestern University, Evanston
     Southern Illinois University at Carbondale
     University of Chicago, Chicago
     University of Illinois, Chicago
     University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

INDIANA
     Butler University, Indianapolis
     Indiana University, Bloomington
     Indiana University East
     Indiana University Northwest
     Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis
     Purdue University, West Lafayette
     Saint Mary's College, Notre Dame
     University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame

IOWA
     Iowa Northern University, Cedar Falls
     Iowa State University, Ames
     University of Iowa, Iowa City

KANSAS
     University of Kansas, Lawrance

LUISIANA
     University of Louisiana, Monroe

MAINE
     University of Maine, Orono

MASSACHUSETTS
     Boston College, Boston
     Boston University, Boston
     Elms College, Chicopee
     Harvard University, Cambridge
      Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge
     University of Massachusetts, Amherst
     Williams College, Williamstown

MICHIGAN
     University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
     St. Mary's College, Orchard Lake
     Wayne State University, Detroit

MINNESOTA
     University of Minnesota, Deluth
     University of Minnesota, Minneapolis

MISSOURI
     Washington University, St. Louis
     Webster University, St. Louis

MONTANA
     University of Montana, Missoula
     University of Montana - Western, Dillon

NEBRASKA
     University of Nebraska, Lincoln

NEVADA
     University of Nevada, Reno

NEW HAMPSHIRE
     Dartmouth College, Hanover
     University of New Hampshire, Durham

NEW JERSEY
     Princeton University, Princeton
     Rutgers University-Camden
     Rutgers University-New Brunswick
     Rutgers University-Newark
     Seton Hall University, South Orange

NEW MEXICO
     University of New Mexico, Albuquerque
     New Mexico State University, Las Cruces

NEW YORK
     Bard Graduate Center, New York City
     Barnard College, New York City
     Canisius College, Buffalo
     City College of New York, New York City
     Columbia University, New York City
     Cornell University, Ithaca
     Hobart and William Smith College, Geneva
     Hunter College, New York City
     New York University, New York City
     State University College at Buffalo
     State University of New York at Albany
     State University of New York at Binghamton
     State University of New York at Buffalo
     State University of New York at Stony Brook
     St. John's Fisher College, Rochester
     University of Rochester

NORTH CAROLINA
     Duke University, Durham
     University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill

OHIO
     Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland
     University of Cincinnati
     Kent State University, Kent
     Miami University, Oxford
     Oberlin College, Oberlin
   Ohio State University, Columbus
     Ohio University, Athens

OKLAHOMA
     Oklahoma State University, Stillwater

OREGON
     Oregon State University, Cornvallis
     University of Oregon, Eugene

PENNSYLVANIA
     Bryn Mawr College, Bryn Mawr
     Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh
      Drexel University, Philadelphia
     Lehigh University, Bethlehem
     University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia
     Pennsylvania State University, University Park
     University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh
     Swarthmore College, Swarthmore
     Temple University, Philadelphia

SOUTH CAROLINA
     Clemson University, Clemson
     University of South Carolina, Columbia

SOUTH DAKOTA
     University of South Dakota, Vermillion

TENNESSEE
     University of Tennessee, Knoxville
     Vanderbilt University, Nashville

TEXAS
     University of Houston, Houston
     Rice University, Houston
     University of Texas, Austin
     Texas A & M University, College Station
     Sam Houston State University, Huntsville

UTAH
     Bringham Young, Provo

VERMONT
     University of Vermont, Burlington

VIRGINIA
     George Mason University, Fairfax
     University of Virginia, Charlottesville

WASHINGTON
     Seattle University of the Pacific, Seattle
     University of Washington, Seattle

WEST VIRGINIA
     West Virginia University, Morgantown

WISCONSIN
     University of Wisconsin, Madison
     University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
     University of Wisconsin-Superior
     University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee

WYOMING
     University of Wyoming, Laramie
Info-Poland student
Institutions of higher education
and Study Abroad in Poland

CIESZYN
     Univ. of Silesia Summer School

KATOWICE
     University of Silesia

KRAKÓW
     Jagiellonian University
     Jagiellonian University Medical College

ŁÓDŹ
     University of Łódź

LUBLIN
     Catholic University of Lublin
     Maria Curie-Skłodowska University

POZNAŃ
     University of Medical Science

RZESZÓW
     Rzeszów University of Technology

SZCZECIN
     Maritime University of Szczecin

TORUŃ
     Nicholas Copernicus University in Toruń

WARSAW
      Warsaw School of Economics
     Warsaw University
Historical
      Time-line of Polish History
      Concise History of Poland

Geography
     The European Continent
      Central Europe
           Map
           Fact Sheet: Population & Languages
           Activity: Geography
            Activity: Languages and Alphabets
     Poland
            Map
            Activity: Geography
            Activity: Map Labeling
            Activity: Word Match

Polish Cities
     A City in Poland: Gdansk
           Narrative description - 660 words
            Deciphering a message - activity
            Legend: The Queen of the Baltic
                  Story: 350 words
                  Coloring Page: Queen of the Baltic
            Coloring page: Gdansk's Coat of Arms
            Coloring page: Ancient Grain Elevator
            Coloring page: The Port of Gdynia
      A City in Poland: Krakow
            Krakow: Narrative description
            Legend: The Trumpeter of Krakow
                  Story
                  The Trumpeter and the Tartars
                  Coloring Page: Trumpeter of Krakow
            Legend: The Wawel Dragon
            Coloring page: Krakow's Coat of Arms
            Coloring page: Juvenalia
            Coloring page:Wawel Cathedral
            Coloring page:Krakow Folk Costumes
      A City in Poland: Warsaw
            Warsaw: Narrative description
            Legend: The Mermaid of Warsaw
            Coloring page: Warsaw's Coat of Arms
            Coloring page: Warsaw's Old Town
      A City in Poland: Zakopane
            Zakopane: Narrative description
            Mountains of the World
            Word search - activity
            Olympics in Zakopane - debate
            Winter Games - decoding activity
            Coloring page:Podhale Costume

Contributions of Polish People
      Frederic Chopin Pages
            Chopin: Biography: 136 words
            Chopin: Activity Sheet
            Coloring Page: Chopin
      Nicolaus Copernicus
           Copernicus: Biography 100 words
           Coloring Page: Copernicus
      Maria Curie Sklodowska
            Curie: Biography: 64 words
            Curie: Biography: 144 words
            Curie: Biography: 135 words & insertion
            Coloring Page: Curie
      Tadeusz Kosciuszko Pages
           Kosciuszko: Biography 100 words
           Kosciuszko: Biography 225 words
           Kosciuszko: Biography words
           Tadeusz Kosciuszko coloring pages
                 Coloring Page: Kosciuszko
                Coloring Page: Kosciuszko with flag
                 Coloring Page: Kosciuszko House
           Kosciuszko - activity
           Kosciuszko's will
      Casimir Pulaski Pages
           Pulaski: Biography 66 words
           Pulaski: Biography 200 words & insertion
           Casimir Pulaski coloring pages
                 Coloring Page: Pulaski
                Coloring Page: Pulaski & Washington
                 Coloring Page: Fort Pulaski
           Pulaski - 225 letter search
           Pulaski - 240 letter search
           Pulaski Day Debating Points
            Pulaski Day Debate
            Essay Construction
           Where is General Pulaski Buried?
           Kosciuszko-Pulaski comparisons

Legends
      The Legend of Janosik
            Story: 500 words
            Word Search: 143-letter search
            Sentence Sequencing Activity
            Janosik - Robin Hood Comparisons
            Pro and Con Activity
            Coloring Page: Janosik
     The Legend of the Queen of the Baltic
            Story: 350 words
            Coloring Page: Queen of the Baltic
      The Legend of the Sleeping Knights
            Story: 400 words
            Word Completion Activity
            Historical Data Insertion Activity
            Coloring Page: Sleeping Knights
      The Legend of the Three Brothers
            Story 400 words
            Activity
            Coloring Page: Three Brothers
      The Legend of Trumpeter of Krakow
            Story: 240 words
            Then and Now Activity
            Coloring Page: Trumpeter of Krakow
     The Legend of the Warsaw Mermaid
            Story: 300 words
      The Legend of Wawel Dragon
            Story: 240 words
            Sentences Sequencing Activity
            Discussion Activity
            Coloring Page: Wawel Dragon

Foods and Folk Customs
      Wycinanki - how to make
            Patterns from the Kurpie Region
            Patterns from the Lowicz Region
      Christmas Tree Ornaments - how to make
            A Selection of Ornaments
            Double Star with Eight Points activity
            Porcupine Star
            Coloring page: Decorated Xmas Tree
      Easter Egg Decoration - how to make
            Polish Easter eggs decorations
           Pisanki: Easter eggs designs
            Easter card activity
     Polish Foods
            Common Dishes
            Common Dishes & word insertion
            Polish Salad Recipe
Jacek Jędruch
Constitutions, Elections and
Legislatures of Poland, 1493-1993

1998, Summit, NJ., EJJ Books
     Chapter 2:
Monarchy Becomes the First Republic:
Kings Elected for Life

Deborah Anders Silverman
Polish-American Folklore
2000, Urbana and Chicago, Univ. of Illinois Press
     Chapter 2
The Old Neighborhood Isn't the Same Any
More": the Evolution of Polish--American Ethnicity

Lynne Olson and Stanley Cloud
A Question of Honor - The Kosciuszko Squadron:
Forgotten Heroes of World War II

2003, New York, Alfred A. KnopfI
     Chapter 8
"My God, They Are Doing It!"

N.J. Demerath III
Crossing the Gods:
World Religions and World Politics

2001, New Brunswick, Rutgers University Press
     Chapter 2 excerpt
Troubles and Changes in European Chirstendom

Rev. Czeslaw Michal Krysa
A Polish Christmas Eve: Traditions
and Recipes, Decorations and Song

1998, Lewiston, NY, CWB Press
     Chapter 4
Vigil Supper Folk Art

Aleksander Topolski
Without Vodka - adventures in wartime Russia
2001, South Royalton, VT, Steerforth Press
     Chapter 1
Enter Reds


     Chapter 17
Beyond the Urals

Klaus Hergt
Exiled to Siberia - A Polish Child's WWII Journey
2000, Cheboygan, MI, Crescent Lake Publishing
     Chapter 7
"You Have Half an Hour . . ."


     End Paper
Sources and Suggested Readings

Eugene Krajewski
Straws in the Wind - One Family's Incredible Journey
2002, Writers Services
     Chapter 6
Journey by Cattle Truck to the Frozen North