1917 - The October
Revolution lead by Lenin. The ideas it embodies soon spread across Russia, later Europe
and activate working class movements.
Futurism - a movement which had its roots in
Italy where it arose before World War I. It represented a 20th century revolt against
tradition and brought to the fore fascination with modernity and technical
Expressionism - it started in Germany at
the beginning of 20th century as a revolt against the materialistic culture of
bourgeoisie. A movement that held that what was most important for the the artist was to express emotions and
reactions to experience, sometimes to shock. Form was very important for
Skamander - a group of 5 eminent poets who published their works in the literary magazines: "Skamander" (1920-28 and
1935-39) and "Literary News" (1924-39). Their poetry of everyday reality contrasted with romanticism and modernism, but still it was more traditional than that of the vanguard.
Existentialism - a philosophical doctrine focused on the personal freedom of the individual. The freedom to create one's own values
and the need to accept responsibility for these choices often causes existentialist to experience tremendous anxiety and despair.
Cracovian Vanguard: Peiper put stress on the progress and
development of the city. The New Art was going to accompany social changes by
destroying old traditional forms and creating new means of expression. In Europe
such vanguard trends appeared around 1910, in Poland between the world
Zagary - was for the name of the magazine
and the group of people working as its editorial staff between 1931 and 1934. The
group owed it existence to such a cultural circles of Vilnus as the Intellectualist's
Club and the Vagabond's Club. Initially, Zagary was mainly concerned with discussions of art by a group of
young poets. One of these poets was Czeslaw Milosz. Later, Zagary turned to left wing politics and that resulted in a split of the group into those with literary and those with political interests. Milosz had no interest
in the political views of Zagary.
"Second Vanguard" - represents the literary
achievements of J.Czechowicz's circle and of the Zagary group. What all those different
individualists have in common is their radicalism and catastrophism.
Generation 1910 - there were the authors
born around the 1910 so they were the first generation brought up in the independent
country. They shared similar life experiences, thus the dire economic crisis of
30's, and the deep social conflicts of those days. They presented variety of
attitudes from catastrophism and existentialism to irony, satire and
Polish - Russian war in 1919-20 -
occurred as Poland sought to gain previously Polish territory in the East and the Bolsheviks sought to extend Communist rule to territories previously occupied by Tsarist Russia and to connect with the revolutionaries in Germany. It ended with an armistice signed in October 1920 and the 1921 Riga peace treaty.
Generation with "spots"- made their debut
in years 1948-49. They were so named by Kott for their very youthful
enthusiasm as they were mainly the followers of Socialist Realism. The
generation disappeared in 1956 with the collapse of Socialist Realism as an art movement
Generation 1920 - The authors born
around 1920 can by divided into those who made their debut during the war,
and were connected with the Warsaw resistance movement and as a result were and those who took part in the wartime resistance movement but survived and made
their debut after the war. The latter created the poetry of death and of lost
Marxism - a political and economic
doctrine created by Karl Marx and Friedrich
Engels, and subscribed to by Lenin as the basis for the
socialistic ideology of working class.
AK (Home Army) - was a military
organization set up in Poland in 1942 by the London-based Polish Government in exile.
Its task was the restoration, with the help of the allies, of the country's prewar political system and
frontiers. The organization was dissolved in 1945.
Socialist Realism - a style adherence to which by authors was demanded by the regime. It required expressions of admiration and applause for the new political system (1949-56). The most
popular subjects were: restoration of the country after the war, the class-war
and the difficulties with the introduction of the new system, hard work in factories, and
rural areas problems. The writers were supposed to glorify current political
Generation 56 ('contemporaries' -after the name of
their periodical) These were the writers were born between 1930 end 1935 who
shared the Polish October' 56 experiences and the end the most repressive
years of communists regime. Their writing strikes us with its independence from
Socialist Realism esthetics and the variety of forms and styles. The
similarities are in novelty, anti-esthetism, criticism of traditional values and
official culture. There is intimacy, pessimism and irony, not met during the previous period.
Generation 60. Writers born just prior or during
wartime who made their debut in 60's. This is a very good time for
poetry. A lot of new trends develop, a lot of poetry festivals
and competitions take place and it is relatively easy to publish. Writers of 'Generation 60'
try to describe reality using new means of expression. They touch upon philosophical, moral, and political issues which are very vital for the
Forefathers' Eve A three part drama by Adam
Mickiewicz. It holds a very important place in Polish literature, reminding Poles about freedom. Part III, especially, tells about suffering of the Polish nation under
Russian occupation during the 19 century.
"The New Wave Generation"
called as well 'Generation 68' and 'Generation 70' - its principal historical
experiences derive from the mass protests of 68 and 70. With the new poetry
comes along animation of so called student's culture bringing to life
interesting artistic phenomenons such as: "The Theater of Eight's Day" (" Teatr Osmego
Dnia ") in Poznan and "The Theater of 100' ( Teatr Stu ) in Krakow. The new
poetry remains very close to everyday reality and places a stress current affairs. They
don't want to isolate poetry from social and political experiences. They are
famous for their linguistic experiments.
"Solidarity" ( Solidarnosc ) - the independent trade
union set up in 80's. Its leaders
come from the active members of anticomunist - opposition. On 13th December 1981
the People's State Council ( Rada Panstwa ) decrees a suspension of the activities of the
"Regime 81 "- Many civil rights and
freedoms are suspended and government bodies increased their
"Generation of BruLion'' -the young poets
and writers who make their debuts in democratic Poland. They rebel against the
official culture and have no respect for authorities, believing that everyone has
to face his moral dilemmas. In searching for the meaning they take up any issue.