1917 - The October Revolution lead by Lenin. The ideas it embodies soon spread across Russia, later Europe and activate working class movements.

Futurism - a movement which had its roots in Italy where it arose before World War I. It represented a 20th century revolt against tradition and brought to the fore fascination with modernity and technical progress.

Expressionism - it started in Germany at the beginning of 20th century as a revolt against the materialistic culture of bourgeoisie. A movement that held that what was most important for the the artist was to express emotions and reactions to experience, sometimes to shock. Form was very important for expressionist.

Skamander - a group of 5 eminent poets who published their works in the literary magazines: "Skamander" (1920-28 and 1935-39) and "Literary News" (1924-39). Their poetry of everyday reality contrasted with romanticism and modernism, but still it was more traditional than that of the vanguard.

Existentialism - a philosophical doctrine focused on the personal freedom of the individual. The freedom to create one's own values and the need to accept responsibility for these choices often causes existentialist to experience tremendous anxiety and despair.

Cracovian Vanguard: Peiper put stress on the progress and development of the city. The New Art was going to accompany social changes by destroying old traditional forms and creating new means of expression. In Europe such vanguard trends appeared around 1910, in Poland between the world wars.

Zagary - was for the name of the magazine and the group of people working as its editorial staff between 1931 and 1934. The group owed it existence to such a cultural circles of Vilnus as the Intellectualist's Club and the Vagabond's Club. Initially, Zagary was mainly concerned with discussions of art by a group of young poets. One of these poets was Czeslaw Milosz. Later, Zagary turned to left wing politics and that resulted in a split of the group into those with literary and those with political interests. Milosz had no interest in the political views of Zagary.

"Second Vanguard" - represents the literary achievements of J.Czechowicz's circle and of the Zagary group. What all those different individualists have in common is their radicalism and catastrophism.

Generation 1910 - there were the authors born around the 1910 so they were the first generation brought up in the independent country. They shared similar life experiences, thus the dire economic crisis of 30's, and the deep social conflicts of those days. They presented variety of attitudes from catastrophism and existentialism to irony, satire and grotesque.

Polish - Russian war in 1919-20 - occurred as Poland sought to gain previously Polish territory in the East and the Bolsheviks sought to extend Communist rule to territories previously occupied by Tsarist Russia and to connect with the revolutionaries in Germany. It ended with an armistice signed in October 1920 and the 1921 Riga peace treaty.

Generation with "spots"- made their debut in years 1948-49. They were so named by Kott for their very youthful enthusiasm as they were mainly the followers of Socialist Realism. The generation disappeared in 1956 with the collapse of Socialist Realism as an art movement

Generation 1920 - The authors born around 1920 can by divided into those who made their debut during the war, and were connected with the Warsaw resistance movement and as a result were and those who took part in the wartime resistance movement but survived and made their debut after the war. The latter created the poetry of death and of lost values.

Marxism - a political and economic doctrine created by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, and subscribed to by Lenin as the basis for the socialistic ideology of working class.

AK (Home Army) - was a military organization set up in Poland in 1942 by the London-based Polish Government in exile. Its task was the restoration, with the help of the allies, of the country's prewar political system and frontiers. The organization was dissolved in 1945.

Socialist Realism - a style adherence to which by authors was demanded by the regime. It required expressions of admiration and applause for the new political system (1949-56). The most popular subjects were: restoration of the country after the war, the class-war and the difficulties with the introduction of the new system, hard work in factories, and rural areas problems. The writers were supposed to glorify current political trends.

Generation 56 ('contemporaries' -after the name of their periodical) These were the writers were born between 1930 end 1935 who shared the Polish October' 56 experiences and the end the most repressive years of communists regime. Their writing strikes us with its independence from Socialist Realism esthetics and the variety of forms and styles. The similarities are in novelty, anti-esthetism, criticism of traditional values and official culture. There is intimacy, pessimism and irony, not met during the previous period.

Generation 60. Writers born just prior or during wartime who made their debut in 60's. This is a very good time for poetry. A lot of new trends develop, a lot of poetry festivals and competitions take place and it is relatively easy to publish. Writers of 'Generation 60' try to describe reality using new means of expression. They touch upon philosophical, moral, and political issues which are very vital for the 20th century.

Forefathers' Eve A three part drama by Adam Mickiewicz. It holds a very important place in Polish literature, reminding Poles about freedom. Part III, especially, tells about suffering of the Polish nation under Russian occupation during the 19 century.

"The New Wave Generation" called as well 'Generation 68' and 'Generation 70' - its principal historical experiences derive from the mass protests of 68 and 70. With the new poetry comes along animation of so called student's culture bringing to life interesting artistic phenomenons such as: "The Theater of Eight's Day" (" Teatr Osmego Dnia ") in Poznan and "The Theater of 100' ( Teatr Stu ) in Krakow. The new poetry remains very close to everyday reality and places a stress current affairs. They don't want to isolate poetry from social and political experiences. They are famous for their linguistic experiments.

"Solidarity" ( Solidarnosc ) - the independent trade union set up in 80's. Its leaders come from the active members of anticomunist - opposition. On 13th December 1981 the People's State Council ( Rada Panstwa ) decrees a suspension of the activities of the union.

"Regime 81 "- Many civil rights and freedoms are suspended and government bodies increased their power.

"Generation of BruLion'' -the young poets and writers who make their debuts in democratic Poland. They rebel against the official culture and have no respect for authorities, believing that everyone has to face his moral dilemmas. In searching for the meaning they take up any issue.


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